Demystifying Dutch Personal Income Tax Forms: A Comprehensive Guide

Navigating personal income tax can be a daunting task. The Netherlands has a unique tax system, and we are here to break it down.

In this guide, we will cover the following topics:

  1. The different tax forms for Dutch personal income tax
  2. Categorising the different types of income into the Dutch BOX system;
  3. Deadlines for filing personal income tax returns and deadline extensions.

Tax Forms for Dutch Personal Income Tax 

As an expat or a Dutch resident, each year you might be in a different situation, depending on your residency status and source of income. For this reason, understanding the various tax forms for Dutch personal income tax is crucial, both for compliance and for fulfilling your tax obligations accurately.

Hereunder, we introduce you to the tax forms, when they apply and their purpose.

M Form (M-Biljet)

The M Form, also known as the M-Biljet, is designed for residents who have migrated to the Netherlands or those who have emigrated from the Netherlands in the given tax year. This form allows individuals to report their income for the part of the year they were a resident in the Netherlands. It covers both worldwide income and Dutch income, providing a comprehensive overview for tax assessment purposes.

Failing to choose this correct form can lead to a wrong calculation of your tax liability.
The Dutch tax office will be aware of your arrival or departure to/from the Netherlands. If you have chosen the incorrect form, they will deny processing the submitted declaration.

P Form (P-Biljet)

The P Form, or P-Biljet, is tailored for full-year residents of the Netherlands. This form is the most common and is, at the same time, an essential form for individuals who qualify as fiscal residents of the Netherlands or are registered in the Netherlands. It enables them to declare their income, substantial shareholdings, and worldwide savings and investments as well as any deductibles that might apply.

C Form (C-Biljet)

The C Form, or C-Biljet, serves a specific purpose for non-residents of the Netherlands who receive income from the Netherlands or have taxable property located in the Netherlands. It is used by foreign residents to report income that is subject to Dutch taxation. This form is most commonly used by those who hold ownership in real estate located in the Netherlands.

O Form (O-Biljet)

Freelancers and self-employed individuals in the Netherlands must use the O Form, or O-Biljet, to report their income and deductions related to their business activities. The O form is NOT a standalone form, but rather an extension to the P Form and M Form. This extension is crucial for sole proprietors and freelancers to declare their earnings, expenses, and apply tax credits accurately. It provides a detailed overview of their business income and allows for deductions such as business expenses, depreciation, various discounts and tax credits. This form must also be used by those who are part of a business partnership (VOF).

Whether you are a resident, non-resident, freelancer, or investor, knowing which form to use and when can save you time and prevent potential tax issues.

Unsure what form applies to you even after familiarising yourself with these forms? Does the Dutch tax office disagree with the form you submitted? Get in touch with us and one of our experts will help you find your way and navigate you through the Dutch tax system with confidence and ensure compliance with tax regulations.

The Dutch BOX System

Tax systems vary per country and can turn out to be rather complex, especially for expats or newcomers to a country like the Netherlands. One of the unique features of Dutch personal income tax is the BOX system, which categorises different types of income into separate “boxes” for taxation purposes. To a large extent, this simplifies the system and can make the tax process manageable and understandable for newcomers. 

What is the BOX System?

The Dutch tax system divides income into three distinct boxes, creatively named Box 1, Box 2, and Box 3. Each box represents a different category of income, and the tax rates and rules vary accordingly. Here’s a brief overview of each box:

Box 1: Income from Work and Homeownership

Box 1 encompasses income from:

  • employment;
  • business profits;
  • other activities;
  • International organisations;
  • previous employment
  • homeownership and deductible costs.

This box is subject to progressive tax rates (2024, under pensionable age), meaning that as your income increases, so does the percentage of tax you pay. Additionally, certain deductible expenses, such as mortgage interest payments and financing costs, can reduce taxable income in this box.

Box 2: Income from substantial shareholdings (>5%)

Box 2 deals with income derived from substantial shareholdings in a company. This typically applies to individuals who own at least 5% of the shares in a Dutch or foreign company. In 2024, income from these shareholdings, such as dividends and capital gains, are taxed at a progressive rate. Income of up to € 67.000 is taxed at 24,5% and all income above this threshold is taxed at 33%.

Box 3: Income from worldwide savings and investments

Box 3 focuses on income from worldwide savings, investments, and assets. This includes bank savings, stocks, bonds, real estate (excluding primary residences), cash, crypto, and other assets of high value, as well as any loans or liabilities. Unlike the other boxes, Box 3 applies a tax on net wealth rather than actual income. Taxpayers are taxed on the value of their assets, as of the first of January of the fiscal year, exceeding a certain threshold, regardless of whether they generate income.

As of 2024, tax is levied on a deemed income, calculated based on the asset type. This deemed income is then subject to a tax rate of 36%.

This section of the Dutch income tax law has been subject to much discussion by the public and the Dutch parliament. We expect forthcoming changes to the rates or potentially entirely to the method of tax calculation, yet this all remains undetermined.

In conclusion, understanding the Dutch tax system is essential for taxpayers in the Netherlands, as it determines how various types of income are taxed. Taxpayers should carefully assess their income sources and consider tax planning strategies to optimise their tax situation within the constraints of the tax system. This may involve structuring investments efficiently, taking advantage of available deductions, and staying informed about changes to tax laws and regulations.

Remember, taxation is a complex matter, and individual circumstances may vary. At Dutchtaxadvice we provide personalised guidance tailored to your specific situation and help you establish the most optimal tax process. Do you want to better understand your tax position for your situation? Do you want to simply plan ahead? Get in touch with us now for professional guidance and help with making an informed decision regarding your tax affairs. You can also fill out our questionnaire for any given year, and we will get in touch with you to provide further assistance.

Deadlines, Penalties and Extensions
Last but not least, we have to consider the applicable deadlines.
In the Netherlands, the deadlines for filing personal income tax returns can vary depending on various factors, including your residency status, whether you’re filing independently or with a tax advisor, and any extensions granted. Here’s an overview of the typical deadlines:

Residents of the Netherlands

For most people, the standard deadline is May 1st of the following year. The Dutch tax office states that the Personal income tax declaration must be submitted before the 14th of July to avoid any penalties.

For residents who immigrated or emigrated during the fiscal year 2023, as of 2024, the same deadline applies to full-year residents.


Penalties can be imposed when you fail to submit your declaration on time or fail to pay the assessment. More commonly, extra charges can be incurred for reminders or interest. Reminder costs can be incurred by failure to pay your tax assessment on time, and interest charges will be levied when you submit your declaration beyond the standard deadline.


Extensions for filing personal income tax returns in the Netherlands are possible. A standard extension usually grants additional time until the first of September. We, as your tax advisor, can also request an extension that will be valid for an even longer period of time. However, you must be cautious as, following the above, interest will be levied on declarations submitted outside of the standard deadline.

Those who have to pay tax on their income should consider submitting their Personal Income tax declaration before the first of May to avoid interest being levied on their assessment. Starting January 2024, the interest rate applicable on Personal Income tax assessments has increased to 7,5%. Ensuring timely and accurate filing of your personal income tax return can help you avoid unnecessary penalties and maintain compliance with Dutch tax laws. If you are struggling to file your taxes on time or simply need help with your declaration, Dutchtaxadvice is one quick call away from helping you take the first steps.

We created a FREE guide for your Dutch Personal Income Tax to help you navigate the process. You can download it from here.